Ethics in Islam (1)

By : Magdy Abd AL-shafy

Islam calls and in the guidance and commandments

It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West; but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Scripture and the Prophets;

Narated By Ibn 'Umar : Allah's Apostle said: Islam is based on (the following) five (principles):

1. To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Apostle.

2. To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly.

3. To pay Zakat. (i.e. obligatory charity)

4. To perform Hajj. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca)

5. To observe fast during the month of Ramadan. (olumn 001, Book 002, Hadith Number 007.)

2- the absolute obedience to God

. And if We had decreed for them : Lay down your lives or go forth from your dwellings, but few of them would have done it; though if they did what they are exhorted to do it would be better for them, and more strengthening; [3;66]

Allah the Almighty has laid down religious duties so don't neglect them ; has boundaries , so don't overstep them ; he has prohibited something , so do not violate them about something he was silent out of compassion for you , not forgetfulness seek not after them

(3) contemplation of Allah's creation

And in the earth are portents for those whose faith is sure. And (also) in yourselves. Can ye then not see?[51:20-21]

(4) the cognition that Allah is the only benefactor

And whatever of comfort ye enjoy, it is from Allah..[16:51]

(5) the giving of glad-tidings to those patiently preserve .

And surely We shall try you with something of fear and hunger, and loss of wealth and lives and crops; but give glad tidings to the steadfast, Who say, when a misfortune striketh them: Lo! we are Allah's and Lo! unto Him we are returning. Such are they on whom are blessings from their Lord, and mercy. Such are the rightly guided. [2:155-157]

(6) putting complete trust on Allah:

If Allah is your helper none can overcome you, and if He withdraw His help from you, who is there who can help you? In Allah let believers put their trust.[3:160]

(7) The cognition that all future events are subject to the will of Allah "

And say not of anything: Lo! I shall do that tomorrow,…[18:23]

(8) Fulfilling the covenant of Allah

And say not of anything: Lo! I shall do that tomorrow .. Yet when He. gave them of His bounty, they boarded it and turned away, averse;. So He hath made the consequence (to be) hypocrisy in their hearts until the day when they shall meet Him, because they broke their word to Allah that they promised Him, and because they lied.[75-77]

[9] Respect of oath when sworn

and keep your oaths.[5:89]

[10] frequent remembrance of Allah

O ye who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance.

[11] Remembrance and glorification of Allah

O ye who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance.

. And glorify Him early and late.[33 :41-42]

[12] making the obligatory prayers

"For such prayers Are enjoined on believers as stated time [3:103]

On the authority of Abu Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with him ), who said that the messenger of Allah ( may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him )said : The first of his action of which a servant of Allah will be held accountable on the Day of Resurrection will be his prayer. If they are in order , then he will have prospered and succeeded ; and if they are wanting , then he will have failed and lost . If there is something defective in his obligatory prayers , the Lord (glorified and exalted be He ) will say : see if my servant has any supererogatory prayers with which may be completed that which was defective in his obligatory prayers .Then the rest the rest of his action will be judged in like fashion .

[13] pilgrimage to House of Allah (at least once in a life time) for those who can afford it :

Lo! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca, a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples;

Wherein are plain memorials (of Allah's guidance); the place where Abraham stood up to pray; and whosoever entereth it is safe. And pilgrimage to the House is a duty unto Allah for mankind, for him who can find a way thither. As for him who disbelieveth, (let him know that) Lo! Allah is Independent of (all) creatures.[3:96-97]

[14] Praying to Allah between fear and hope.

Say (O Muhammad, unto the disbelievers): My Lord would not concern himself with you but for your prayer. But now ye have denied (the Truth), therefore there will be judgment.[25:77}

Repentance to Allah and seeking His forgiveness .

[15 ] Love of Allah

. O ye who believe! Whoso of you becometh a renegade from his religion, (know that in his stead) Allah will bring a people whom He loveth and who love Him, humble toward believers, stern toward disbelievers, striving in the way of Allah and fearing not the blame of any blamer. Such is the grace of Allah which He giveth unto whom He will. Allah is All Embracing, All Knowing.[5:16]

On the Authority of Abu'Ibbas Sahl Ibn Sa'ad idi(may Allah be pleased with him )who said " Aman came to the prophet (may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him ) and said : O messenger of Allah , direct me to the act which , if I do it ,( will cause ) Allah to love me and people to love me . He said " renounce the world and Allah will love you and renounce what people possess and people will love you .

[16] repentance to Allah and seeking His forgiveness :

" And you believe! Turn ye all together towards Allah , that ye Allah May attain Bliss

[17] Love of Allah to transcend everything else :

Yet of mankind are some who take unto themselves objects of worship which they set as) rivals to Allah, loving them with a love like (that which is the due) of Allah (only) Those who believe are stauncher in their love for Allah, that those who do evil had but known, (on the day) when they behold the doom, that power belongeth wholly to Allah, and that Allah is severe in punishment![2:165]

Islam prohibits "

(1) Despairing of Allah's mercy

" Lo! none despaireth of the Spirit of Allah save disbelieving folk "[12:87]

(2) Responding in kind to the blaspheme and insults of polytheists

Revile not those unto whom they pray beside Allah lest they wrongfully revile Allah through ignorance. Thus unto every nation have We made their deed seem fair. Then unto their Lord is their return, and He will tell them what they used to do.

(3) No social intercourse with those who engage in vain discourse about the signs of Allah

And when thou seest those who meddle with Our revelations, withdraw from them until they meddle with another topic. And if the devil cause thee to forget, sit not, after the remembrance, with the congregation of wrong doers.[6:68]

(4) Excessive oath taking in the name of Allah :

And make not Allah, by your oaths, a hindrance to your being righteous and observing your duty unto Him and making peace among mankind. Allah is Nearer, Knower.

Personal Ethical Conduct

Islam calls for :

(1)the necessity of obtaining factual –information .

" If ye realize this not ask of those who possess Message

(2)Striving for purification of the soul .

" And those who strive I our cause , we will certainly guide them [29:69]

(3)Equality in punishment ( punity)

O people , those before you had gone astray , for if someone notable stole , they let him go , and if a poor man did , they penalize him . By Allah , if Fatma ,Mohummed's daughter stole , Mohummed would most assuredly cut off her hand "

(4)knowledge of the rules of Ethics and Behaviour

. O ye who believe! Enter not houses other than your own without first announcing your presence and invoking peace upon the folk thereof. That is better for you, that ye may be heedful.[24:27]

(5) Listening attent8ively and following instructions

And those who put away false gods lest they should worship them and turn to Allah in repentance, for them there are glad tidings. Therefor give good tidings (O Muhammad) to my bondmen.Who hear advice and follow the best thereof. Such are those whom Allah guideth, and such are men of understanding.[39:17-18]

[6] inculcating obedience in one's children :

" tell the boy to pray when he reaches the age of seven ; when he becomes ten years old , beat him if he does not "

(7) Righteousness :

Say (unto them O Muhammad): I am only a mortal like you. It is inspired in me that your God is One God, there for take the straight path unto Him and seek forgiveness of Him. And woe unto the idolaters, [41:6]

On the authority of Abu Amr –and he is also given as Abu Amra –Sufyan ibn AbdAllah " may Allah bew pleased with him " , who said " I said Omessanger of Allah , tell me something about Islam which I can Ask of no one but you .He said : say : I believe in Allah –and thereaftwer Be upright . It was related by Moslem

(8) repentance

And O ye believers , Turn ye all together towads Allah , that ye May attain Bliss (24:31)

Purity of the soul .

(9) purity of Soul

And a soul and Him who perfected it. And inspired it (with conscience of) what is wrong for it and (what is) right for it.. He is indeed successful who causeth it to grow.

On the authority of Abu Masuad Uqba Ibn Amr AL-Anasari al-Badri (May Allah be pleased with him ) who said : The messenger of Allah said " Among the words obtained from the forst prophecy are : if you feel no shame , then do as you wish . It was related by al-Bukhari

(10) Co-operation in doing good

And let not your hatred of a folk who (once) stopped your going to the Inviolable Place of Worship seduce you to transgress; but help ye one another unto righteousness and pious duty. Help not one another unto sin and transgression, but keep your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is severe in punishment.[5:2]

[11] Amiability and humility

Be modest in thy bearing and subdue thy voice. Lo! in harshest of all voices is the voice of the ass.[31:19]

[12] unanimity around lofty ideals

And hold fast, all of you together, to the cable of Allah, and do not separate. And remember Allah's favor unto you: how ye were enemies and He made friendship between your hearts so that ye became as brothers by His grace; and (how) ye were upon the brink of an abyss of fire, and He did save you from it. Thus Allah maketh clear His revelations unto you, that haply ye may be guided,

[13] Calling for God with wisdom and effective preaching .

Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation, and reason with them in the better way. Lo! thy Lord is best aware of him who strayeth from His way, and He is Best Aware of those who go aright. [16:125]

(14) Moderation in attire , eating and drinking

O Children of Adam! Look to your adornment at every place of worship, and eat and drink, but be not prodigal. Lo! He loveth not the prodigals.

(15) Chastity

" And who guard their modesty, Save from their wives or the (slaves) that their right hands possess, for then they are not blameworthy.."[23:5-6]

(16) Being moderate in financial matters

And those who, when they spend, are neither prodigal nor grudging; and there is ever a firm station between the two [25:67]

(17) humility and politeness in speech

Be modest in thy bearing and subdue thy voice. Lo! in harshest of all voices is the voice of the ass. [31:19]

(18) the acts of Moslems to conform his words

O ye who believe! why say ye that which ye do not?

It is most hateful in the sight of Allah that ye say that which ye do not.[61:2-3]

(19) quest of science from scholars.

. And We sent not (as Our messengers) before thee other than men whom We inspired Ask the followers of the Remembrance if ye know not![16:43]

(20) Providing a good example for others

. Verily in the messenger of Allah ye have a good example for him who looketh unto Allah and the last Day, and remembereth Allah much. [33:21]

(21) Patience

Endure thou patiently (O Muhammad). Thine endurance is only by (the help of) Allah. Grieve not for them, and be not in distress because of that which they devise.

(22) Obedience to the prophet and his teachings

Whoso obeyeth the messenger obeyeth Allah, and whoso turneth away: We have not sent thee as a warder over them. [4:80]

(23)Putting complete trust in Allah but guarding against indifference

" Hobble and trust in Alllah "

(24) Having true faith

The commandment of Allah will come to pass, so seek not ye to hasten it. Glorified and Exalted be He above all that they associate (with Him).[16:91]

(25) Justice and good works

Lo! Allah enjoineth justice and kindness, and giving to kinsfolk, and forbiddeth lewdness and abomination and wickedness. He exhorteth you in order that ye may take heed.[61:90]

(26) feeling of the amity and the brotherhood of man

O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made `you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware.

On the authority of Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him that the messenger of Allah said "let him who believes in Allah and the last Day either speak good or keep silent , and let him who believes in Allah and the last Day be generous to his guest "

(27)the effective use of our faculties :

He is indeed successful who causeth it to grow,

And he is indeed a failure who stunteth it.[91:9-10]

(28) Obedience to Allah , His messenger and those in authority :

O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority; and if ye have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger if ye are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end.[4;59]

That which Allah giveth as spoil unto His messenger from the people of the townships, it is for Allah and His messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, that it become not a commodity between the rich among you. And whatsoever the messenger giveth you, take it. And whatsoever he forbiddeth, abstain (from it). And keep your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is stern in reprisal.[59:7)

(29) Practicing what one preaches

Enjoin ye righteousness upon mankind while ye yourselves forget (to practise it)? And ye are readers of the Scripture! Have ye then no sense?[2:44]

(30) No coercion in religion

And if thy Lord willed, all who are in the earth would have believed together. Wouldst thou (Muhammad) compel men until they are believers?[10:99]

(31) work within the limits of one's capacities

Allah tasketh not a soul beyond its scope. For it (is only) that which it hath earned, and against it (only) that which it hath deserved. Our Lord! Condemn us not if we forget, or miss the mark! Our Lord! Lay not on us such a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us! Our Lord! Impose not on us that which we have not the strength to bear! Pardon us, absolve us and have mercy on us, Thou, our Protector, and give us victory over the disbelieving folk. (2:286)

(32) Love of Allah

"Love Allah for the blessings  He bestows upon you " prophet's honoured dictum related in Turmzy

(33) Spending what is beyond some one's need

And they ask thee what they ought to spend. Say: That which is superfluous. Thus Allah maketh plain to you (His) revelations, that haply ye may reflect.

(34) Justice when judging between two adversaries

" Two Judges in hell and one in heaven . The one in heaven is the one who recognized truth and acted upon it and the one in hell is a manw ho judged people unknowingly and another one who knew the truth and acted contrary to it "

" prophet's honoured dictum related in Turmzy

Also God says in this concern what means

" Between man and man , that ye judge with justice"[3:58]

(35) Signs of faith

If m pained by an evil deed you committed ,or happy over a good one you did ,  then you are believer " prophet's honoured dictum related in Turmzy

(36)Being virtuous towards oneself

Enjoin ye righteousness upon mankind while ye yourselves forget (to practise it)? And ye are readers of the Scripture! Have ye then no sense?

On the authority of An-Nawas Ibn –Nawas ibs Sam'an (may Allah be pleased with him ) that the prophet ( may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him ) said " Righteousness is good normality , and wrongdoing is that which wavers in your soul and which you dislike people finding out about "

On the authority of Wabsa ibn Ma'ad ( may Allah be pleased with him ) .who said : I cam to the messenger of Allah ( may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him ) and he said " you came to ask about righteousness ? I said :yes, he said consult your heart . Righteousness is that about which the soul feel tranquil and wrongdoing is that which wavers in the soul and moves to and fro in the breast even though people again and again has given you their legal opinion in its favour "

(37)Being virtuous towards relatives

O ye who believe ! Be ye staunch in justice, witnesses for Allah, even though it be against yourselves or (your) parents or (your) kindred, whether (the case be of) a rich man or a poor man, for Allah is nearer unto both (than ye are) . So follow not passion lest ye lapse ( from truth ) and if ye lapse or fall away, then lo! Allah is ever Informed of what ye do.[3:135]

(38)making things easy for people

Allah would make the burden light for you, for man was created weak. [3: 28]

(39)Remembrance of Allah

Except if Allah will. And remember thy Lord when thou forgettest, and say: It may be that my Lord guideth me unto a nearer way of truth than this.

On the authority of Abu 'Abbas " Abdullah the son of 'Abbas ( may Allah be pleased with them both ) who said : one day I was behind the prophet who said  to me " Young man ! I shall teach you some words (of advice ) : Be mindful of Allah , and Allah will protect you . Be mindful of Allah , and Allah and you will find him in front of you . If you ask , ask Allah . Know that if the nation were gather together to benefit you with any thing , it would benefit you only with something that Allah had already prescribed for you , and that if they gather together to harm you with anything , they would harm you only with something Allah had already prescribed for you . The pen had been lifted and the pages have dried.

It was narrated by at-Tirmidhi , who said it was good and sound Hadith . In a version other than that of at-Tirmidhi it reads :

Be mindful of Allah , you will find ….

(40)The removal with evil deeds with charitable ones

Establish worship at the two ends of the day and in some watches of the night. Lo! good deeds annul ill deeds. This is a reminder for the mindful. (11:114)

On the authority of Abu Dharr Jundib ibn junda and Abu Abd –Alrhman Mu'dh ibn Jabal ( may Allah ne pleased with them both ) , that the messenger of Allah ( may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him ) said

" Fear Allah wherever you are , and follow up bad deed with a good one and it will wipe it out , and behave will towards people .

(41)Allah honoured His apostle and Muslims who asked for pardon :

But Allah would not punish them while thou wast with them, nor will He punish them while they seek forgiveness.(8:31)

(42) Having confidence in Allah's mercy

" Despair not of the mercy Of Allah for Allah forgives all sins , for He is Oft-forgiving , Most Merciful