In my book, Miraculous Verses of the Holy Quran and the Plant Life, there was an article entitled: “A Seed Sending Forth its Shoot” on the scientific interpretation of the 29th verse of Surah 48: Al-Fat-h (The Victory).

Today, we will discuss another facet of the miraculous nature of this verse, which includes a flowering-plant proof that the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah be pleased with them, never originated heresies or distorted the religion. Instead, each of them was a messenger of the Messenger of Allah to a new place where he had reached and lived.

To be able to understand this scientific miracle and the Quranic plant proof, we are to be aware of the following:

. Types of reproduction of the seed plants:

Scientifically, there are two types of reproduction of the seed plants:

1.  Sexual (seed) reproduction:

A male gamete (of a pollen grain) and a female gamete (of an ovule) fuse to produce a new plant whose the same hereditary characteristics of their parents.

Features of seed sexual reproduction:

·     No hereditary Characteristics can be determined and no certain production results can be expected. Hereditary Characteristics can be changed, so a new plant may be of genetic characteristics and appearance different from those of its parents.

·     The new plant will separate from the parent plant, and usually there will be no relation between them after the maturity of the seed and the grain. The new plant will neither be under the wing of the parent plant nor protect or strengthen it. Instead, the new plant would weaken its parent plant if it grew in the vicinity.

·     It takes a long time till new plants flower and fruit, especially in the case of trees and bushes.

2.  Asexual or vegetative reproduction:

Cuttings, buds, grafting, roots, stems, etc are among asexual methods of propagating seed plants.

Features of vegetative reproduction:

·     New plants are of genetic characteristics and appearance which are identical to those of their parent plant.

·     New plants are flowering and fruiting quickly, especially in the case of trees and bushes. This is because the “Flowering Hormone” is produced in tissues of the parent plant and passed to new plants (cf. my book, Miraculous Verses of the Holy Quran and the Plant Life).

·     A new plant (shoot) strengthens and protects its parent plant.

. The miracle of the plant Quranic example:

Allah, glory and exaltation to Him, gives a miraculous Quranic scientific plant example depending on scientific Quranic proofs that the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, never originated heresies or distorted the religion. Instead, each of them led a life of adherence to the Prophet Muhammad's principles, faith, and behaviour. They also protected and supported him. Furthermore, they spread the religion to other places far from its origin (Mecca & Al-Madinah). Among these places are Andalus (Spain), Constantinople (Istanbul), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Persia (Iran), Tunisia, the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon), Sudan, and Egypt, and every place they or there straight righteous followers have reached or will reach.

Allah, glory and exaltation to Him, says: (It is He Who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion: and enough is Allah for a Witness. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds, Forgiveness, and a great Reward). (Verses: 28 & 29 of Al-Fat-h Surah)

Regarding the meanings, Quran Commentators have explained that:

“Sends forth its shoot” means:

·     Different sprouts, surrounding a plant

·     What emerged from the two sides of a plant

·     Palm shoots

·     A plant leaves

·     A tree of many branches and twigs growing from it

·     Trees which emerged from their origins

Ar-Ragheb Al-Asfahany, may Allah has mercy upon him, stated in Words of Quran the follwing meanings:

A shoot of a plant: sprouts of the plant, growing form its two sides.

Becomes thick: after it was thin.

Stands on its own stem: stands straightly on its origin and trunk.

Filling the sowers with wonder and delight: because of its strength, density, thickness and beauty.

Commentators also stated that:

Allah gives this example for the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah be pleased with them, as they were a few, at the beginning of Islam. Then, their number and strength were growing and they were promoting day by day, which filled people with wonder and unbelievers with rage at them.

Also commentators stated that:

It is mentioned in Bible that there would be people who would grow like plants, some of who would enjoin good and forbid evil. This is the same example that Allah gives for the beginning of Islam, its promoting and its growing strength. This is because the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, first started by himself, then Allah strengthened him by his companions.

Dr. Wahba Al-Zuhaily, may Allah protect him, has stated in the “Bright Commentary” that:

In (Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds,) Allah says (those among them) not to specify only some of them, but to specify the class, i.e. the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, because all of them are of the same mentioned feature. Other honest commentators, such as Al-Qurtuby, Al-Nasfy, Ebn Al-Anbary, and Ebn Katheer have stated similar commentaries. So keep this in mind.

. The miraculous scientific commentary of this verse:

This is a miraculous scientific example related to the plant life, given by Allah for the Prophet Muhammad (seed), peace be upon him, his companions (who was with him) and all righteous Moslems. So, Allah likens the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, to (a seed) and his companions to (its shoot), from which new plants and millions of green leaves grew.

According to the plant life, it is a scientific fact. In the case of annual monocotyledons belonging to the grass family (Poaceae or Gramineae) such as wheat, barley and rice, etc., the origins of food worldwide, the first stem grows lonely and weakly. After that, “Tileres” grow quickly from their “Lateral Buds” on double basal nodules, which grow directly underground. So, several (shoots), which exceed 50 shoots, grow from one original plant or one original stem.

Such shoots have the same characteristics of Vegetative (Asexual) Reproduction that we have mentioned before:

·     They have the same hereditary characteristics of their parents

·     They strengthen and protect their origins

·     They fill the sowers with wonder

·     They fill the unbelievers with rage at them

Also, palm trees have such characteristics; several palm shoots grow from their original palm tree.

This is exactly the example given in Quran; the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is the original (plant), and his Companions, and Successors are the (shoots).

When farmers see shoots grow and surround their origins, they become filled with wonder, delight and calmness as they become assured that the roots of their (original) plant have gown and their leaves have strengthened. After a while, they see the ground is covered with several shoots, which are exactly like the origins. Then, thousands of flowers grow and bring forth fruits, seeds, and grains. In the case of some plants, one seed produces more than five thousand seeds, and “Allah giveth manifold increase to whom He pleaseth: and Allah careth for all and He knoweth all things.” (Verse 261 of Surah 2: Al-Baqarah 'The Heifer').

In the case of other genera of floral Monocotyledons such as the date palm and the doum palm, when leaves grow from stems, the stems strengthen and their diameters become thicker. Also, these plants bring forth several lateral shoots, which strengthen the original plant. Such shoots are identically of the same hereditary characteristics of their parents. The stem of banana tree grows from bases of leaves, which strengthen and protect the original plant. Also, its shoots have the same hereditary characteristics.

This is the example of the straight Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and all righteous Moslems as they follow the lead of him and avoid heresy. Their knowledge and behaviour depend on his verbal and practical Sunna, and they have transmitted this Sunna[1] as it is, without changing or distorting. They are of rectitude and trustworthy memory. According to scholars of Hadith[2], "A Sahih (sound) Hadith is the one which has a continuous isnad[3], made up of reporters of rectitude and trustworthy memory from similar authorities, and which is found to be free from any irregularities (i.e. in the text) or defects (i.e. in the isnad)."

They have honestly transmitted (and righteous Moslems are still transmitting) true knowledge (religion) to everyone and every place they reached and each of them was an image of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, in a new environment.   

Tissue Culture is a method of the vegetative reproduction in which we plant a meristem vegetative tissue in an artificial nurturing environment. It produces new plants identical to the parent plant. So, we can propagate tens of thousands of plants identical to the parent plant, which proves that the Holy Quran is a unique miracle which always stand up to any attempt to refuting it.

Each of us can be (a shoot) that spread true religion via the Internet without changing or distorting. However, the most important things to keep in mind are to avoid irregularities and defects, i.e. to depend on true sources, to honestly transmit their information and facts, and to mention those sources.

So, the Vegetative (asexual) Reproduction is a proof of the rectitude and orthodoxy of the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah be pleased with them, and that they have honestly transmitted the true religion that they have learnt from the Prophet Mohammed, peace be upon him. “And their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them.” (Verse: 29 of Al-Fat-h Surah).

The Companions of the Prophet Muhammad are similar to branches and twigs:

If the word (shoot) is meant to refer to branches bearing leaves, we can give another example of dicotyledons, such as mulberry, ficus, fig, sycamore, apple, pear, Poinciana, cassia, etc. Their main stem bears lateral buds, from which leaf and flower stems grow. A tree of one origin can bear thousands of buds producing thousands of branches of identical hereditary characteristics and appearance.

Without branches, a plant cannot strengthen, and its flowering, fruiting, and production will diminish:

Thus, the Prophet Mohammed is the origin; and his Companions and their orthodox successors are the branches and twigs surrounding the parent plant. If we transplant each branch in a new place, depending on the vegetative method, each of them will work just as well if it is the origin plant. This is a miraculous Quranic scientific example which makes clear the fact that the Companions of the Prophet Mohammed, may Allah be pleased with them, have followed his lead, without changing or distorting and that everyone who follows their example is of such esteemed rank.

The importance of branches and twigs:

·     They strengthen the original plant

·     They bear flowers and fruits

·     They cast its shadow in the vicinity

·     They are means of vegetative reproduction

The Companions of the Prophet Muhammad are of similar importance of leaves to a plant:

If the word (shoot) is meant to refer to (leaves), as some commentators stated, so we are to be aware of the facts that

·     Leaves are the essence of the plant life

·     They produce food for their plant

·     They strengthen the plant

Leaves:

·     Leaves exploit and maintain solar energy best on Earth.

·     They purify environment of carbon dioxide (CO2) and produce oxygen (O)

·     They maintain and exploit carbon dioxide. During photosynthesis in green plants (specifically in their leaves), light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds, used as food for such plants.

·     They keep temperature on Earth suitable for living beings.

·     They purify air, reduce pollution and temper the weather

·     A leaf is a primary element in flowering, fruiting, and life as a whole.

So, The Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah be pleased with them, are the (branches and twigs), and the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is the (origin and trunk).

Why is an example of (the plant life) specifically given?

·     Plant is the essence of life on Earth. If there were no plant on Earth, there would be no food, no energy, no water exploiting, and no life on Earth at all.

·     Life on Earth cannot continue without plant.

·     There would be no real life without the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, his Companions and their orthodox successors till Judgment Day.

·     Plant obtains its energy from the sky and connects it with the earth and environment.

·     The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, received the Message, that he was to spread, from the heaven, which connects heaven with the earth and society.

·     Plants maintain light energy on Earth. They transform light energy, difficult to be exploited directly by living beings, into chemical energy. Likewise, they exploit and maintain carbon dioxide.

·     Likewise, the Prophet Mohammed has maintained the Inspiration, Allah's Light (Allah's Guidance, His Law and evidences), and has made it available to humankind.

·     Plant is mentioned in the verse as a proof of the importance of Islam, the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, his Companions and all their orthodox successors till the Judgment Day to the sound life and wholesome balanced environment.

The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and plants:

·     The human life depends on plant. Likewise, lives of bodies, souls, hearts and minds depend on the Prophet Mohammed, peace be upon him.

·     Plant provides the Earth with the essential constituents for the living beings. Likewise, the Prophet Mohammed, peace be upon him, provides it with essential constituents for human beings to enable them to live on it in a sound way. “Give your response to Allah and His Messenger, when He calleth you to that which will give you life.” (Surah 8: Al-Anfal, 'The Spoils of War').

A miraculous example:

One who scientifically, rationally and lawfully think, analyze, and meditate on this example can realize that it is actually a miraculous scientific Quranic example. He/she will be persuaded of the orthodoxy and rectitude of the Companions of the Prophet Mohammed, may Allah be pleased with them, of their importance to spreading the Message of Islam, and of their supporting and strengthening the Prophet Mohammed, peace be upon him. The following verses also prove this fact.

Regarding the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah be pleased with them, Allah, glory and exaltation to Him, says:

Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith, in the cause of Allah, as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid, these are (all) in very truth the Believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous.” (Surah 8: Al-Anfal, 'The Spoils of War').

Also, regarding the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad and their orthodox successors, may Allah be pleased with them, Allah, glory and exaltation to Him, says:

“The vanguard (of Islam), the first of those who forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds, well-pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him: for them Hath He prepared Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever: that is the supreme Felicity.” (Surah 9: Al-Tawba, 'The Repentance').

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Source: A research by Prof. Nazmy Khalil Abu-Alata Musa, a professor of Botany, a researcher on plant miracles in the Holy Quran, and the General Director of Bin An-Nafees Center for Technical Services.

Email: alfowz@batelco.com.bh


[1] Sunna: The deeds, sayings, and silent approvals of the Prophet Muhammad; this constitutes the second source of Shari'a (the Islamic Law). It is obligatory for Muslims to follow the Sunna as well as the Quran.

[2] Hadith: Collection of reports that document the sayings and actions of the prophet Muhammad (Sunna), one of the main sources of Islamic law (second in authority to the Quran)

[3] Isnad: Chain of transmitters who have transmitted a given hadith (report); its reliability determines the validity of a hadith.